Annotated Bibliography

Barbour, K & Nguyen, L 2017, “Selfies as expressively authentic identity performance.” First Monday, vol. 22, no. 11, DOI:

This article is about whether selfies represent an authentic portrayal of a person. The authors explore what it means to be authentic and through research focus groups found that many thought authenticity to be subjective. This means that just because a person edited their selfie to look a little better doesn’t necessarily deem that photo unauthentic. The author also uses outside sources to discuss how participants who took selfies learned more about their internal and external selves because they spent more time looking at their own face. It helped them come to terms with who they are in a sense. I am going to use this article and research to explore how people really connect with the selfies they take and how others’ perceive people’s selfies as an authentic portrayal. I will then connect that to Snapchat’s face filters and how its’ usage affects the trusting relationship people have with selfies.

Goodnow, Trischa. “The Selfie Moment: The Rhetorical Implications of Digital Self Portraiture for Culture.” In the Beginning was the Image: The Omnipresence of Pictures: Time, Truth, Tradition. Peter Lang AG, 2016, pp. 123-130.

This piece is about how a selfie, a photo you have taken of yourself, has implications of the culture that uses it, the culture we are currently in today. Goodnow explains how a selfie is a picture that is not part of a larger narrative, it is usually just a photo of a person’s face without that much context unless a caption or a bit of the background is provided. Selfies are instead images that are meant to stand on their own and only represent the present. Goodman then organizes selfies by the values in which the selfie seems to embody. The first one is adventure, which would feature a selfie of a person either doing some cool activity like skydiving or in an exotic place like a famous beach, showing everyone that they are exciting. The second is popularity which would depict a selfie of the user with a bunch of their friends, proving to the world that they are doing something with people. The last category is attractiveness and how, whether it be a workout selfie or face selfie, users who engage in these types of selfies are usually trying to gain affirmation by others, whether it be likes or comments. I am going to use this last category to explain why people feel the need to use face filters on their selfies and how this reflects our current values.

Ramphul, Kamleshun and Stephanie G Mejias. “Is “Snapchat Dysmorphia” a Real Issue?” Cureus vol. 10,3 e2263. 3 Mar. 2018, doi:10.7759/cureus.2263.

This article explores the concept of “Snapchat Dysmorphia” and how much we should be worried about this issue. Snapchat Dysmorphia describes a disorder that is on the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. It includes people having incessant thoughts of a nonexistent or small defect about their appearance, with Snapchat being a main factor. The article brings up how several plastic surgeons have had experiences where they get requests describing changes that a Snapchat filter would produce, like changing skin tone, softening lines and wrinkles, and altering size of eyes, lips, and cheeks. One doctor even said that someone came in with a Snapchat face filtered picture as a reference. I will use this paper to discuss how there are already some recorded negative consequences of Snapchat’s augmented reality face filters on its’ users and what that can mean for society.

Robin, Marci. “How Selfie Filters Warp Your Beauty Standards.” 25 May. 2018.

This Teen Vogue article talks about the possible detrimental consequences between technology and beauty standards. It brings up issues with using filters or editing apps to alter one’s face. Marci interviews multiple people, one of them being a licensed clinical social worker at a mental health treatment center for teens The social worker says that using selfie filters can cause people to have a disconnect between what they’re putting out into the world and what they really look like, ultimately affecting how they understand who they are as a person. At the same time, people tend to not realize that other people are also tuning their face, so they end up comparing their real, imperfect lives and bodies with others’ own edited images. I am going to use this article to show the negative effects of these face filters on users’ self esteem and how badly it can warp our self perception.

Shearer, Christopher. “Filters and photo manipulation on social media sites are creating a generation of deluded adolescents.” 4 Feb. 2016.

This article is an opinion piece about businesses and corporations using social media and users’ low self esteem to further the company’s platform. It goes on to have various statistics and facts stating how 65% of young people say that seeing their selfies online boost their confidence and that 40% of teens said that social media helps them present their best self to the world. Shearer goes on to argue that certain sites could be exploiting self-worth platforms like Snapchat and Instagram by allowing users to judge each other with likes or comments. These likes or comments then add to that person’s self esteem. I am going to use this piece as a reason for maybe why Snapchat felt the need to implement face filters in such a way that they seem to be enhancing our faces due to what society deems attractive.

Valkenburg, Patti M, and Jessica Taylor Piotrowski. “Social Media.” Plugged In: How Media Attract and Affect Youth. Yale University Press, 2017, pp. 218-243.

This is a chapter in a book about youth and their relationship with media. This specific chapter goes more in depth on social media and its’ implications. The authors talk about how social media has seven affordances. They say that the appeal of social media for youth can be explained by one or more of these seven affordances. The affordances are asynchronicity, which is the fact that we can communicate at a time that suits them; identifiability, the idea that we can choose what is anonymous or public; cue manageability, the possibility for users to show or hide cues about self while communicating; accountability, the fact that we can easily find information and contact each other; scalability, how we can choose the size of our audience; replicability, how we can copy or share existing online content; and retrievability, how we can store and retrieve posted content. I am going to explore how Snapchat as an app fits in with these affordances and how that can appeal to the use of face filters for users.

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